Difference between Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement Pdf


The Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement are two international treaties that have set out to combat climate change. While both are focused on reducing greenhouse gases and limiting global warming, they have some significant differences.

The Kyoto Protocol was first adopted in 1997 and went into effect in 2005. It required developed countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases to below 1990 levels by the year 2012. This was to be achieved through the implementation of various mechanisms such as emissions trading, clean development mechanisms, and joint implementation.

On the other hand, the Paris Agreement was adopted in 2015 and came into force in 2016. The agreement aims to limit global warming to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, with a goal of limiting it to 1.5°C. This is to be achieved through a voluntary agreement by all countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, as well as through financing and technology transfer to developing countries.

The Paris Agreement is more comprehensive than the Kyoto Protocol, as it includes all countries, not just developed ones. This means that developing countries also have to make efforts to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, the Paris Agreement is more flexible, allowing countries to set their own targets and take their own measures to reduce emissions. In contrast, the Kyoto Protocol had set targets for countries and required them to follow specific mechanisms to achieve them.

Another significant difference between the two is how they address the role of carbon markets. The Kyoto Protocol relied heavily on carbon markets to achieve its targets, such as the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation. However, the Paris Agreement does not place as much emphasis on carbon markets. Instead, it focuses on the reduction of emissions through various measures, such as renewable energy and energy efficiency.

In conclusion, while the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement share a common goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, they differ significantly in their approach. The Paris Agreement is more comprehensive and flexible, while the Kyoto Protocol had specific targets and mechanisms that countries had to follow. Overall, the Paris Agreement is seen as a more effective instrument for combating climate change, as it involves more countries and offers more flexibility in achieving its targets.